AskDefine | Define limerick

Dictionary Definition

Limerick

Noun

1 port city in southwestern Ireland
2 a humorous verse form of 5 anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme aabba

User Contributed Dictionary

see Limerick

English

Pronunciation

  • /ˈlɪmərɪk/

Noun

  1. A humorous, often bawdy verse of five anapestic lines, with the rhyme scheme aabba, and typically has a 9-9-6-6-9 cadence.

Translations

rhyming verse of five lines

External links

Extensive Definition

Limerick (pronounced /ˈlɪmrɪk/; Luimneach'' in Irish) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the province of Munster, in the midwest of the Republic of Ireland. The city lies on the River Shannon, with three main crossing points near the city centre and has a 2006 population of 91,000 inhabitants within the Limerick urban area and is one of the constituent cities of the Cork-Limerick-Galway corridor with a population of 1 million people.

History

Luimneach originally referred to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary, which was known as Loch Luimnigh. The earliest settlement in the city Inis Sibhtonn was the original name in the annals for King's Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. This island was also called Inis an Ghaill Duibh.
The city itself dates from at least the Viking settlement in 812. The Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as King John's Castle and St Mary's Cathedral. During the civil wars of the 17th century, the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s. Limerick grew rich through trade in the late 18th century, but the Act of Union in 1800, and the famine caused a crippling economic decline broken only by the so-called Celtic Tiger in the 1990s.
The Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin-Cork main line in 1848 and to Waterford in 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the 1850s and 1860s developed Limerick as a regional centre of communications.

Geography

Limerick is at the centre of the Midwest region which contributes €8.224 billion (2002) towards Irish GDP. It is situated 195 km west of Dublin and is equidistant at 105 km from the cities of Cork to the south and Galway to the north.

Demographics

The population of Limerick city and the immediate urban area (environs/suburbs) is 90,778 (based on the 2006 census carried out by the CSO), of which 52,560 live within the city limits and 38,218 live in the city's immediate environs in both County Limerick and County Clare. In addition the African community have set up a small number of churches, which are now part of the cultural makeup of the city.
Limerick is the fourth most populous city in the Republic of Ireland after Dublin, Cork and Galway (though its urban area population is greater than Galway's) and the city including suburbs is the fifth largest urban area on the island of Ireland (after Dublin, Belfast, Cork and Derry Respectively).

Government

Limerick City Council, formerly Limerick Corporation, has responsibility for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. The City Council comprises elected ward councillors with an appointed (full time) CEO as City Manager. Local elections are held every five years and the councillors annually elect a Mayor to chair the council and represent the City. As of 2007 the current Mayor is Councillor Ger Fahy. Some former, well-known Mayors include TDs Donagh O'Malley, Stephen Coughlan, Michael Lipper, Jim Kemmy and Jan O'Sullivan.
The boundaries of the city were extended on March 1, 2008, when the Limerick City Boundary Alteration Order 2008 came into effect. This followed demands from city councillors for a redrawing of the boundary, which was deemed antiquated and inaccurate for modern-day Limerick. The order added an area of approximately 1,020 hectares from County Limerick, increasing the city's area by almost 50% and increasing the population by an estimated 7,000 persons. The added area comprises the townlands of Clonmacken, Caherdavin, Knock, Shanabooley, Ballygrennan, Clonconane, Clondrinagh, Coonagh East and Coonagh West. The previous boundary, encompassing 2,086 hectares, was delineated in 1950.
A large proportion of what is considered as the population of Limerick City now live in suburbs built after the 1960s which remain in the Limerick County Council administrative area. These include Dooradoyle, Castletroy — including the University, Gouldavoher, and Raheen.
For national Dáil elections Limerick City is included in the Limerick East constituency which elects five members on a Proportional Representation (PR) system. For European parliament elections Limerick is included in the South Ireland constituency which elects three representatives.
Two of Limerick East's TDs are members of the current Irish Government. Willie O'Dea is the Minister for Defence and Peter Power is the Minster of State for Overseas Aid. Both are members of the Fianna Fail party.

Economy

Limerick is at the heart of the region dubbed "the Midwest". Also known as the "Shannon Region", this is primarily an economic and social concept. The region encompasses County Limerick, County Clare, North County Tipperary and Northwest County Kerry, with its focal point centred on Limerick and its environs within an eight kilometre (5 mile) radius.
The area is possibly the main economic region outside of Dublin and Cork. Its economic success has been driven in part by the University of Limerick, Shannon Airport in Co. Clare and Shannon Development (an economic development agency), whose precursor was SFADCO (Shannon Free Airport Development Company), an economic agency that provided tax incentives to companies locating in the area surrounding Shannon Airport. As of 2006 Shannon Development are mostly concerned with disposing of valuable industrial park properties.
Historically Limerick was an agricultural commodity-driven economy, due to its position as the first major port along the River Shannon. The city was one of the main meat processing areas in Ireland, and industry included confectionery and flour production. In line with the changing economic landscape in Ireland, many multinational companies are now based in Limerick. Dell have their main European Manufacturing Facility in Raheen Business Park, and are one of the largest employers in the midwest region. The facility is the largest Dell manufacturing plant outside the United States and currently produces 30,000-60,000 units per day for export to the EMEA - contributing 5.8% of Irish GDP (2002). Analog Devices have their European manufacturing base also in Raheen, 3 km south-west of the city centre. The site employs more than 1,000 people. Johnson & Johnson subsidiary Vistakon (the world's largest manufacturer of contact lenses) also have a large facility in Castletroy in the National Technology Park. It is Vistakon's only production facility outside the United States and one of the largest contact lens manufacturing plants in the world.

Tourism

In late 2007/early 2008, Coonagh Cross Shopping Centre will be opened. It will be the biggest shopping centre in the Mid-West region. A city-centre shopping centre of a similar scale (billed in some places as prospectively the biggest in Munster) is also planned. The Opera Centre would be located parallel to Rutland and Patrick Street, from the (Abbey River) quays to Ellen Street. This will be the first major leap of faith by external developers in Limerick City Centre as up to now the city has been all but passed over leaving the majority of development to locals. The proposed redevelopment of the entire Arthur's Quay Area, New Docklands twinned with a newly vibrant night economy helped in no small way by international tourists using Budget Flights from Shannon Airport.

Social

Limerick City has a vibrant nightlife, with numerous nightclubs; Trinity Rooms probably being the best known nationally with acts like the Human League, The Blizzards Femi Kuti and Roger Sanchez having played there in the last year. Pubs such as Nancy Blakes, The Wicked Chicken, Mickey Martins and The Old Quarter give a range of drinking experiences from the warm and cosy to cutting edge. Traditional Irish Music is based around Dolans Warehouse which is firmly established on the national Trad circuit and also hosts many local, national and international folk, indie, jazz and rock acts. seealso Economy of Ireland

Architecture

The city centre is divided between the traditional areas of "English Town" on the southern end of King's Island, which includes the castle, "Irish Town" which includes the older streets on the south bank, and the current economic centre called "Newtown Pery". Newtown Pery was built in the late 18th century before the Act of Union and, unusually for an Irish city and unique in Limerick itself, this area is laid out on a grid plan. Limerick city centre is changing rapidly, with the construction of several modern high-rise buildings in the early-2000s. The suburban regions, where the majority of the population now live, have grown out from the centre along the main roads to Ennis (North Circular and Ennis Road areas/Caherdavin), Dublin (Castletroy and the University) and Cork (Ballinacurra/Dooradoyle/Raheen). Suburban houses are generally two floor semi-detached homes for single families. These were built from the 1960s onwards in large estates by government projects and commercial developments, although there are many examples of Edwardian and older 1930s suburban homes on the main suburban thoroughfares leading towards the city (North & South Circular, Ballinacurra Road, O'Connell Avenue).
Much Georgian architecture was evident in the city from about the 1800s onwards. Although some has since been demolished, much of the Newtown Pery area is built in the Georgian fashion. Other architectural buildings of note in the city are King John's Castle and St Mary's Cathedral in English Town and St John's Cathedral, designed by the notable Victorian architect, Philip Charles Hardwick. St Mary's Cathedral, at over 800 years old, is one of the oldest in Ireland. St John's Cathedral, whilst more modern, has one of the tallest steeples.
One of Ireland's most celebrated museums, the Hunt Museum, is based in the historic 18th-century former Custom House. The museum was established to house an internationally important collection of approximately 2000 works of art and antiquities formed by John and Gertrude Hunt during their lifetimes. On display are the 9th century Antrim Cross, a sketch by Picasso and a bronze sculpture of a horse, said to be from a design by Leonardo da Vinci. see also Architecture of Ireland

Transport

Buses

Local public transport is provided by Bus Éireann, Ireland's national bus operator. City Service Routes are as follows (frequencies shown in brackets, in minutes):
  • 301 City Centre to Shannon Banks or Westbury (301A) (20mins)
  • 302 City Centre to Caherdavin (302A Caherdavin-to-University) (20)
  • 303 Carew Park to City Centre (30) (303A City Centre to Ballynanty) (30)
  • 304 City Centre to Raheen (Services via Greenfields operate as 304A) (10)
  • 305 Lynwood to Coonagh Roundabout (30–60)
  • 306 Craeval Park to O'Malley Park (30)
  • 308 City Centre to University (Services via Pennywell operate as 308A) (15)
  • 309 Pineview to St. Mary's Park (60)
  • 312 City Centre to Ballycummin (60).
Buses also run to towns and villages in the county and to Shannon Airport. Intercity and international buses leave from the Bus Éireann bus station adjoining the City's train station. These include hourly services to Dublin, Cork and Galway and other cities, as well as a daily service to London via ferry services from Rosslare Europort.

Rail

Limerick city is served by the Limerick Suburban Rail network, consisting of three suburban rail lines, servicing the towns of Sixmilebridge(1,500), Ennis(25,000), Castleconnell(4,000), Birdhill, Nenagh(9,000) and Tipperary town (5,000).
Iarnród Éireann's Colbert Station is the terminus for frequent services to Dublin and Cork (serving many intermediate stations), a frequent all-day commuter service to Ennis, as well as a three-times daily service to Waterford and stations in County Tipperary. Services to and from Nenagh on the Ballybrophy line will be expanded to include commuter service from 2007. There are also plans to reopen the Western Railway Corridor from Ennis to Galway and Sligo, closed in the 1970s. In February 2006 it was announced that regular services between Limerick and Galway will be restored in 2007. There are also plans to reopen Sixmilebridge station shortly after. Many rail services include a changeover at Limerick Junction. The Railway Procurement Agency has suggested that a tram system should be built in the city.
As part of their 2007 election manifesto (announced in April 2007), Fianna Fáil (currently the largest party in the Dáil and the Seanad) have announced they will conduct feasibility studies for bringing light rail systems to the Republic of Ireland's 'provincial cities' - Cork, Galway, Limerick, and Waterford.
Limerick railway station was opened on 28 August 1858, replacing an earlier, temporary station 500m east, which had operated from 9 May 1848.

Flight

Shannon International Airport, 20 km west of the city in County Clare which by 2010 will easily be accessed by Limerick commuters due to the opening of the Limerick Tunnel, has scheduled flights to many European and North American destinations. Airlines using the airport include Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Delta Air Lines, and Continental. There is currently no rail link to this airport. The Coonagh airfield,(which is due to close soon and moved to a new site)is located a few kilometers west of Caherdavin, provides access for small private aircraft. Kerry and Cork Airports can also be an option, being around 1 hour 30 minutes and 2 hours drive, respectively. seealso Transport in Ireland

Education

Limerick is an important centre of higher education in Ireland after Dublin and Cork. It is home to 10 higher institutes of learning and has a student population of over 20,000.
Technical and continuation education within the City traces its beginning back to the formation of the Limerick Athenaeum Society in 1852. The Society's aims included "the promotion of Literature, Science, Art and Music".
The University of Limerick (UL), has a student population of over 13,000, and is situated about 5 km northeast of the city centre in the suburb of Castletroy. It was originally established as the National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE) in 1972 and became the first University to be established since the foundation of the State in 1922. It is notable for its programs of engineering, information technology, materials science, sports science, humanities, social sciences and music. In 2007, the university opened a medical school. The Irish World Music Centre specialises in traditional music and dance, and UL is host to the Irish Chamber Orchestra. The campus includes a 50m Olympic-standard swimming complex, the first in Ireland.
Mary Immaculate College, Limerick (a constituent college of the University of Limerick), is an education and arts college situated just south-west of the city centre. Thomond College of Education, Limerick was a successful teacher training college (for secondary level) and was integrated into the university in 1991.
Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT) has a student population of 6,500 and is a centre for business, engineering, information technology, humanities, science and art education. The main campus is located at Moylish Park, about 3 kilometres north-west of the city centre, while the Limerick School of Art and Design is based in the city centre. The college was originally established as the Limerick College of Art, Commerce & Technology (CoACT) in the mid 1970s and was upgraded to a Regional Technical College (RTC) in 1993 and finally an Institute of Technology in 1997. LIT has a strong sporting ethos, which is not surprising given its location adjacent to Thomond Park and the Gaelic Grounds. It also houses the Millennium Theatre a popular northside venue for shows and concerts.
Primary and secondary education in the city is organised similarly to the rest of Ireland.
The Model School (An Mhodh Scoil) is one of the gaelscoils in Limerick. It is primary and has over 500 students. It is over 150 years old, and is the only school in Munster with the educlick education system.

Media and the arts

Broadcast

Lyric FM, a state-run classical music radio station and part of RTÉ, broadcasts nationally from studios in the city centre. Limerick's local radio station is Live 95FM, broadcasting from 'Radio House', near the waterfront at Steamboat Quay.
Spin Southwest, owned by Communicorp, broadcasts to Counties Kerry, Clare, Limerick, North Tipperary and southwest Laois from their studios at Landmark Buildings in the Raheen Industrial Estate.
Limerick's only student radio station, Wired FM, broadcasts on 96.8FM from Mary Immaculate College. Wired FM also has studios in the University of Limerick and Limerick Institute of Technology.
Limerick Regional Hospital also has a radio station on 94.2FM but this can only be heard in the hospital and surrounding area.
Limerick citizens can also receive transmissions from West Limerick 102 which is broadcast from Newcastle West.
The national broadcaster, RTE have radio studios in the City Centre, which are periodically used to broadcast programming from Limerick.

Print

Several local newspapers are published in the city, including The Limerick Post, The Limerick Leader, and The Limerick Independent. Magazines include the Limerick Event Guide, Business Limerick and Limerick Now.

Arts

The Belltable Arts Centre on O'Connell Street is host for local playwriting and drama. Mike Finn's numerous plays have been successful, including Pigtown, set around a century of the city's history, and Shock and Awe, an energetic retelling of Homer's Iliad. The new University Concert Hall provides a large venue for national and international acts to visit the city.
The Limerick City Art Gallery on Pery Square is the city’s chief venue for contemporary art exhibitions. It also is home to a permanent collection of Irish art which shows works from the early 18th to 20th century. Limerick's major contemporary art event is EV+A (Exhibition of Visual+ Art) which invades the city annually, often in controversial ways. Established in 1977 EV+A has become one of Ireland's premier annual exhibitions of contemporary art. Selected each year by a new curator, it brings International artworks as well as art by Irish artists to Limerick. The centre of the exhibition is the Limerick City Art Gallery. However, EV+A generally uses numerous other venues throughout the city.
Other active Limerick arts groups include Contact Studios (who provide individual studio spaces for visual artists), the Daghdha Dance Company (a contemporary dance company who have adopted a renovated church in John's Square, adjacent to St. John's Cathedral, as a performance space), the Fresh Film Festival which is held each spring, includes films made by young people (7-18 years) from all over Ireland, Impact Theatre Company and Limerick Printmakers(who provide printmaking facilities and a venue for exhibitions and events).Also of note is the Limerick Youth Theatre which provides young people with an opening into acting and production. It received attention in the national media with its 2005 production of Romeo and Juliet which made comparisons between the ongoing feud in the city with that of the Montague's and the Capulet's in the play.
The city has an active music scene, which has produced bands such as The Cranberries (and guitarist Noel Hogans' MonoBand), The Hitchers and many more. Also of note is that world renowned electronic musician Richard D. James (more commonly known as Aphex Twin) was born in Limerick in 1971. More classically, The Limerick Art Gallery and the Art College cater for painting, sculpture and performance art of all styles. The Irish Chamber Orchestra and the Irish World Music Centre are both based in the University of Limerick. The University has a one-thousand seat state-of-the-art concert hall that frequently hosts visiting performers. Limerick is also home to comedians D'Unbelievables (Pat Shortt & Jon Kenny), Jimmy Carr , Karl Spain and The Rubberbandits. Dolans Warehouse on the Dock Road has two venues specialising in live music; an upstairs venue which tends to accommodate comedians and folk and jazz acts, and a much larger warehouse venue holding 400, which tends to stage more popular (usually rock) acts, both national and international. Dance music is catered for at Baker Place which holds mainly local underground nights and Trinity Rooms which has recently hosted Groove Armada, Dj Yoda and Jazzy Jeff.
The city served as the setting for Frank McCourt's memoir Angela's Ashes and for the film adaptation of the same name. It is also the setting for the contemporary coming-of-age drama, Cowboys & Angels, as well as Robert Cunningham's Somebody's Daughter - which was shot in various locations around the city and had its premiere in King Johns Castle in July 2004.
A limerick is a type of humorous verse of five lines with an AABBA rhyme scheme; however, the poem's connection with the city is obscure.

Hospitals

  • St John's Hospital, Limerick
  • Barringtons Hospital, Limerick
  • The Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick
  • The Mid-Western Regional Orthopaedic Hospital, Croom, County Limerick.
  • The Mid Western Regional Maternity Hospital, Limerick
  • St Camillus' Geriatric Hospital, Limerick

Sport

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastimes in Limerick. The city and suburbs also has many tennis, athletics, and golf clubs - including Limerick Golf Club.
The Limerick Lions are the citys Superleague basketball side, playing in the University Arena. The University Arena will also host the World Baton Twirling Championships in 2008.

Rugby

Rugby Union is perhaps disproportionately popular in the city, which is often referred to as the home of rugby union in Ireland. Rugby is popular at all levels, from school to senior league level. Since the onset of the all Ireland league in 1991, this competition has been dominated by Limerick teams who have won the competition twelve times in seventeen years. The big performers have been Shannon (8 time winners), Garryowen (3 times), Young Munster (once).
At schools level St. Munchin's College, Corbally, is one of the stronger schools for rugby in recent times. Winning its first title in the Munster Schools Senior Cup in 1968, it has won the Cup four times subsequently. It also has three titles at junior level. Munchin's has been particularly strong in recent years and many former pupils have gone on to play at international level, including Bill O'Connell, Bill Mulcahy, Larry Moloney, Colm Tucker (also a Lion), John Fitzgerald, Paul Hogan, Philip Danaher (also Irish captain), Anthony Foley (also Irish captain), Keith Wood (also a Lion and Irish captain) and current Irish internationals Marcus Horan, Jerry Flannery, Barry Murphy and Jeremy Staunton. Crescent College S.J. is another of Limerick's schools with a strong rugby tradition. This school has been run by the Jesuit order since 1859, and in common with its sister Colleges of Belvedere and Clongowes, Crescent has produced a number of Irish international rugby players including the Wallace brothers, Pat Whelan and Peter Clohessy. Crescent is one of the 'big five' rugby schools in Munster, winning the Munster Schools Senior Cup for the first time in 1947 and nine times subsequently, as well as five titles at junior level. The school is also affiliated to Old Crescent RFC. Other newer schools in Limerick which are at developmental stage include Ardscoil Rís, which produced the Ireland and Munster lock, Paul O'Connell. Ardscoil have reached the final at senior level in 1993 and 1996, and have won the Munster Junior Cup twice (in 2003 and 2005); meanwhile, Castletroy College reached their first Munster Junior Cup final in 2007 after only seven years being open. The following year they achieved the double with both Junior and Senior teams winning the respective tournaments for the first time in the school's history.
All Munster European Heineken Cup matches are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick, where the Munster team held a record of being unbeaten in the Heineken Cup for 26 consecutive games, until the 16-9 defeat by Leicester in January 2007. No other team in the competition has such a home record. Munster won the Heineken Cup in 2006, under the leadership of Limerickman Anthony Foley, who also played on the Irish international team. Munster also recorded a famous victory against the touring New Zealand All Blacks team in 1978 at Thomond Park.

Gaelic Games

Ireland's national sports of Hurling and Gaelic football are widely played in the city and its surrounding suburbs. Although Limerick has not won the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship since 1973, it reached the finals in 1974, 1980, 1994, 1996 and 2007 and is considered one of the top eight teams in the game. The county won successive All-Ireland Under-21 titles in 2000, 2001 and 2002. City-based clubs Claughaun (Clochán) and Na Piarsaigh play at senior level, Monaleen (Móin a'Lín) and Mungret (Mungairit) at intermediate level and Old Christians (Sean-Chriostaithe), Milford (Áth an Mhuilinn), Saint Patrick's (Naomh Pádraig), Abbey Sarsfields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainstreach) and Crecora (Craobh Chumhra) at junior level.
Limerick won the first ever All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in 1887 when represented by the city's Commercials club and repeated the feat in 1896. Since then, the game has lived mostly in the shadow of hurling but a resurgence in 2000 saw the county win its first Munster under-21 title and lose the 2004 Munster senior final after a replay. Monaleen (Móin a'Lín), Claughaun (Clochán) and Mungret (Mungairit) are senior clubs, Saint Patrick's (Naomh Pádraig) and Na Piarsaigh are intermediate and Milford (Áth an Mhuilinn), Abbey Sarsfields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainstreach) and Ballinacurra Gaels (Gaeil Bhaile na Cora) play at junior level.
Limerick's Gaelic Grounds (Pairc na nGael) on the Ennis Road is the county team's home venue for both sports and has a current capacity of 50,000 following its reconstruction in 2004. In 1961, it hosted Ireland's biggest ever crowd for a sporting event outside of Croke Park when over 61,000 paid in to see the Munster hurling final between Tipperary and Cork.

Soccer (Association Football)

The city's involvement with senior football began in 1937 and has continued without interruption. Though arguably under-achieving in the decades since then, Limerick AFC and its successors have captured a number of trophies, including 2 League of Ireland Championships and two FAI Cups, prior to a move from the city centre Markets Field ground in the 1980s. The city's current representatives - Limerick 37 FC- are challenging for promotion from the Eircom League First Division, the second tier of Irish football. Their home ground is Jackman Park, next to the city's railway station.

Climate

Limerick has a mild climate, with the average daily maximum in July at 20°C (68°F) and the average daily minimum in January at 4°C (39°F). The highest temperature recorded in the city was 31.6°C (88.88°F) in 1995, and the lowest was -11.2°C (11.84°F).

Crime

Media articles often refer to Limerick as "Stab City", a term which originated in the press in the 1980s, but this is not supported by the facts or by official statistics. Specifically, in the last year Dublin has had 10 fatal stabbings (Limerick had 1, Cork had 2 in the same period). Knife crime is actually now perceived as a major problem throughout the entire country.
A March 11th 2008 article in The Irish Times suggested that violent crime rates in Limerick are higher than elsewhere in the country.
Recent years have seen serious crimes in Limerick being linked with feuds between criminal gangs within certain areas of the city, mainly Moyross, Southill and St. Mary's Park. Arguably, this rivalry was precipitated by the murder of alleged gang member Eddie Ryan in November 2000, in a public house in the Johnsgate area of the city.
Despite a relative lull in gang violence between 2004 and the first half of 2006 in Limerick's housing estates, the problem seems to have escalated again in September 2006, with two children suffering extensive burns in the torching of their mother's car in early September, and a series of apparently retaliatory attacks including a drive-by shooting later that month.
Recently the government appointed Mr. John Fitzgerald (retired Dublin City Manager) to carry out a speedy and comprehensive investigation of issues prevailing in Moyross and other parts of Limerick City and to make recommendations directly to the Government's Cabinet Committee on Social Inclusion. Mr. Fitzgerald reported back in early April of 2007 and his recommendations were fully endorsed and approved by the Cabinet. A key element of the approved recommendations was the creation of two new special purpose Government Agencies for the Southside and Northside of Limerick City and these Agencies were established by Government Order dated 15th June 2007.

Notes and references

  • The History of Limerick City, by Sean Spellissy (1998)
  • The Government and the People of Limerick. The History of Limerick Corporation/City Council 1197-2006 by Matthew Potter (2006)
  • First Citizens of the Treaty City. The Mayors and Mayoralty of Limerick 1197-2007 by Matthew Potter (2007)
  • The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909–48, Joost Augusteijn, editor, District Inspector, Limerick 1920, ISBN 978-1-84682-069-4.

See also

External links

limerick in Breton: Luimneach
limerick in Bulgarian: Лимерик
limerick in Catalan: Limerick
limerick in Danish: Limerick (by)
limerick in German: Limerick
limerick in Spanish: Limerick
limerick in Esperanto: Limerick
limerick in Basque: Limerick
limerick in French: Limerick (Irlande)
limerick in Irish: Luimneach
limerick in Galician: Limerick - Luimneach
limerick in Indonesian: Limerick
limerick in Italian: Limerick
limerick in Hebrew: לימריק
limerick in Latvian: Limerika
limerick in Lithuanian: Limerikas
limerick in Dutch: Limerick (stad)
limerick in Japanese: リムリック
limerick in Norwegian: Limerick
limerick in Norwegian Nynorsk: Limerick
limerick in Polish: Limerick
limerick in Portuguese: Limerick
limerick in Romanian: Limerick
limerick in Russian: Лимерик
limerick in Simple English: Limerick
limerick in Finnish: Limerick
limerick in Swedish: Limerick
limerick in Turkish: Limerick
limerick in Volapük: Luimneach
limerick in Chinese: 利默里克

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

English sonnet, Horatian ode, Italian sonnet, Petrarchan sonnet, Pindaric ode, Sapphic ode, Shakespearean sonnet, alba, anacreontic, balada, ballad, ballade, bucolic, canso, chanson, clerihew, dirge, dithyramb, eclogue, elegy, epic, epigram, epithalamium, epode, epopee, epopoeia, epos, georgic, ghazel, haiku, idyll, jingle, lyric, madrigal, monody, narrative poem, nursery rhyme, ode, palinode, pastoral, pastoral elegy, pastorela, pastourelle, poem, prothalamium, rhyme, rondeau, rondel, roundel, roundelay, satire, sestina, sloka, song, sonnet, sonnet sequence, tanka, tenso, tenzone, threnody, triolet, troubadour poem, verse, verselet, versicle, villanelle, virelay
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